Aequorea victoria, crystal jelly : The Race Rocks Taxonomy

aequorea

Aequorea in a kelp bed at Race Rocks, photo by Chris Blondeau

Kingdom: Animalia Subkingdom: Eumetazoa Phylum: Cnidaria Subphylum: Medusozoa Class: Hydrozoa Subclass: Leptolinae Order: Leptomedusae Suborder: Conica Family: Aequoreidae Genus: Aequorea Species: A. victoria The following quote  is from Wikipedia.. noted here because of the reference to Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss.

“Aequorea victoria, also sometimes called the crystal jelly, is a bioluminescent hydrozoan jellyfish, or hydromedusa, that is found off the west coast of North America. This species is thought to be synonymous with Aequorea aequorea of Osamu Shimomura, the discoverer of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Shimomura together with Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien were awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry[1] for the discovery and development of this protein as an important biological research tool. Originally the victoria species was supposed to designate the variant found in the Pacific, and the aequorea designation was used for specimens found in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. The species name used in GFP purification was later disputed by M.N. Arai and A. Brinckmann-Voss (1980),[2] who decided to separate them on the basis of 40 specimens collected from around Vancouver Island. Osamu Shimomura notes that this species in general shows great variation: from 1961 to 1988 he collected around 1 million individuals in the waters surrounding the Friday Harbor Laboratories of University of Washington, and in many cases there were pronounced variations in the form of the jellyfish. “

 An interesting account by Claudia Miils about the misidentification of the bioluminescence in Aequorea in various scientific journals and magazines  can be found in Bioluminescence and other factoids about Aequorea, a hydromedusa See this link for other hydroids:  http://www.racerocks.ca/tag/hydroid/ 

This file is provided as part of a collaborative effort by the students, faculty and staff and volunteers of Lester B. Pearson College
originally published 2006, updated: 2014 Garry Fletcher

Stomatoca atra: the Race Rocks taxonomy

Ryan Murphy took these pictures of Stomatoca atra underwater at Race Rocks. It was identified by Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss.

rm291010jell

rm291010jelly

hydrozoafoodweb

This file is provided as part of a collaborative effort by the students, faculty, staff and volunteers of Lester B. Pearson College.

See this link for other hydroids:  http://www.racerocks.ca/tag/hydroid/

Clavularia sp. : Pale Soft Coral– The Race Rocks Taxonomy

rmapr10clav

A colony of Clavularia sp. by Ryasn Murphy, April 2010. The individual polyps can be seen in unusual clarity.

See Ryan’s underwater set on Flickr with a range of invertebrates:

rmapr10clavclose

This is an enlarged close up of part of the image above.

 

This species is currently being identified. Each polyp is smaller than 1.2cm. Although it may appear at first as a hydroid, it is actually a soft coral, in known as an octocoral because of the eight tentacles. It is found in small patches a few cm. in diameter on the rocks right off the docks at Race Rocks in 10-12 metres of water.

 

Dr. Anita Brinckmann Voss identified this sample and indicated that it is related to Gersemia the soft pink coral. She has seen it in samples from Race Rocks before but not in such a large colony. She also indicated that a new species has been described from the North Pacific and she will try to get us a reference to it.

rmclavactinia

Another photo by Ryan Murphy of a Clavaria colony. The colour difference here is unexplained so far.

Domain Eukarya
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Cnidaria
Class Anthozoa
Subclass Octocorallia
Order Alcyonacea
Family Clavulariidae
Genus Clavularia
Species sp .
Common Name: Pale soft coral

Octocorals on Coral reefs make up a large portion of the species there. The potential medicinal uses of several species of clavularia have been published. The abstract of one such study on Clavularia viridis is shown below:
Lin YS, Khalil AT, Chiou SH, Kuo YC, Cheng YB, Liaw CC, Shen YC. of the Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, Republic of China.
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the nonpolar extract of soft coral Clavularia viridis resulted in isolation of five new prostanoids, designated as claviridic acids A-E (1-5, resp.), in addition to the known clavulones I-III. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic techniques, especially HR-ESI-MS, CD, and 2D-NMR experiments. The isolated marine prostanoids exhibited potent inhibitory effect on PHA-induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as well as significant cytotoxic activity against human gastric cancer cells (AGS)

This file is provided as part of a collaborative effort by the students, faculty, staff and volunteers of
Lester B. Pearson College
April 2010
Garry Fletcher

Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss and Hydroid Research at Race Rocks

anitaFrom 1986, to 2005,  Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss of Sooke, BC assisted the students and faculty of Lester Pearson College with her understanding of marine invertebrate ecology and her expertise in the taxonomy of hydroids. These small colonial animals, the alternate stage of the life-cycle of jellyfish, occur in rich profusion underwater at the Race Rocks Marine Ecological Reserve.  When the original species list was done for the Race Rocks Ecological Reserve Proposal, in 1979, only 2 hydroids had been included on our species list. Now over 60 species have been identified by Anita and she continues to assist students with research projects while she furthers her research on specimens from the island. Anita has established long term research plots in a tidepool at the reserve and documents the distribution of hydroids underwater with the assistance of students and faculty in the Diving program at Lester B. Pearson College. Below: Anita accompanies Garry, Chris and Joe on a dive to Secretary Island, West of Race Rocks up the Strait of Juan de Fuca towards Sooke. The purpose was to collect samples for hydroid specimens.  

anitaandsvobodaDr. Armin Svoboda and his son Hanno visited Race Rocks with Chris Blondeau and Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss in August of 2004. His pictures taken on a dive there are linked here.

 

 

 See this link for the hydroids identified by Anita. http://www.racerocks.ca/tag/hydroid/ 

See all the posts on this website tagged with Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss

bellatitle-1Gallery of photomicrographs of Hydroids- photos by Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss

tubulariaVideo on the habitat of a rare Tubularia

 

 

 

 

 

westshorePhotos of  Intertidal Hydroid Habitat on West side of Race Rocks .

 

 

 

 

PUBLICATIONS of Dr. Voss from her Research at Race Rocks Ecological Reserve :

 1. Brinckmann-Voss, A. , Lickey, D.M. , and Mills, C.E. 1993 Rhysia fletcheri (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Rhysiidae), a new species of Colonial Hydroid from Vancouver Island British Columbia, Canada) and the San Juan Archipelago (Washington, USA) . Canadian Journal of Zoology 71: 401-406

Abstract: 

  • A new species of colonial athecate hydroid, Rhysia fletcheri , is described from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, and from Friday Harbour, Washington, U.S.A. It’s relationship to Rhysia autumnalis Brinckmann from the Mediterranean and Rhysia halecii (Hickson and Gravely) from the Antarctic and Japan is discussed. Rhysia fletcheri differs from Rhysia autumnalis and Rhysia halecii in the gastrozooid having distinctive cnidocyst clusters on its hypostome and few, thick tentacles.
  • hydrfemeMost of its female gonozooids have no tentacles. Colonies of R. fletcheri are without dactylozooids. The majority of R. fletcheri colonies are found growing on large barnacles or among the hydrorhiza of large thecate hydrozoans. 
  • Rhysia fletcheri occurs in relatively sheltered waters of the San Juan Islands and on the exposed coast of Southern Vancouver Island. Colored photos of Rhysia males. females and gastrozooids are included.

 2. Brinckmann-Voss, A. 1996. Seasonality of Hydroids (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) from an intertidal pool and adjacent subtidal habitats at Race Rocks, off Vancouver Island,Canada, Scientia Marina Advances in Hydrozoan Biology , Vol 60 (1):89-97

Abstract:

  • An assemblage of 27 hydroid species was reported from a tide pool in the lower rocky intertidal zone, and compared with 42 hydroids of the adjacent subtidal region. Location of hydroids within the pool, seasonal occurrence, growth and sexual maturity were tabulated, and some systematic aspects discussed. Possible causes of hydroid species diversity were considered, including location of the tide pool in an area of tidal rapids, and shading by surfgrass and rock cliffs during low tide.

Tidepool # 6 “Anita’s Pool”

On the West side of Great Race Rocks is a tidepool that we have been observing for many years. Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss has done research on the seasonality of hydroids in this pool and it is published as:

 Brinckmann-Voss, A. 1996. Seasonality of Hydroids (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) from an intertidal pool and adjacent subtidal habitats at Race Rocks, off Vancouver Island,Canada,
Scientia Marina Advances in Hydrozoan
Biology , Vol 60 (1):89-97

anitapool

Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss doing research on seasonality of Hydroids in Tidepool #6

Abstract:

An assemblage of 27 hydroid species was reported from a tide pool in the lower rocky intertidal zone, and compared with 42 hydroids of the adjacent subtidal region. Location of hydroids within the pool, seasonal occurence, growth and sexual maturity were tabulated, and some systematic aspects discussed. Possible causes of hydroid species diversity were considered, including location of the tide pool in an area of tidal rapids, and shading by surfgrass and rock cliffs during low tide

tpgf

 

 

The unique feature about this pool is that it is deep enough – ( 1 meter) and it gets swells that refresh it even when the tide level is low. Garry is standing on the lip of the pool as the water from a swell spills out and cascades down to the lower level of the ocean.

 

 

Tidepool 6 at low tide

Tidepool 6 at low tide

Tidepool 6 at high tide

Tidepool 6 at high tide

TIDEPOOL6See this video on Tdepool 6 at High Tide:

see this link for other hydroids:  http://www.racerocks.ca/tag/hydroid/

Hydroid photomicrography by Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss

Find the individual file on these species photographed by Dr.Brinckmann- Voss in the Race Rocks taxonomyo

See this link for all the hydroid entries:  http://www.racerocks.ca/tag/hydroid/

These images were scanned from 35 mm.slides taken by photomicrography of samples collected on permit at Race Rocks by Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss* with the assistance of students and faculty of Lester B. Pearson College. Scanning and preparation for html was done by Garry Fletcher.

Copyrighted 1999–All Images on this page are the property of:
Dr. Anita Brinckmann- Voss They can not be used or modified without her written permission.

* All hydroid species shown on this website have been reported in

:Brinckmann-Voss, A. 1996.- Seasonality of hydroids (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

from an intertidal pool and adjacent subtidal habitats at Race Rocks,

off Vancouver Island, Canada. Scientia Marina

60 (1):89-97.

Return to the file on Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss

Abietinaria rigida : The Race Rocks Taxonomy

In this picture, the biotic associations of the rock scallop can be seen to consist of several hydroid species. Abietinaria rigida  is number 3. scallopnumbered   Ectopleura is numbers 1 and 5.

Domain Eukarya
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Cnidaria
Class Hydrozoa
Order Leptothecata (=Leptomedusae)
Family Sertulariidae
Genus Abietinaria
Species rigida, Nutting 1904
Common Name:  ———–

This file is provided as part of a collaborative effort by the students,volunteers,staff and faculty of Lester B. Pearson College. 2005.

see this link for other hydroids:  http://www.racerocks.ca/tag/hydroid/

Solmissus marshalli –The Race Rocks Taxonomy

solmissus

Solmissus sp. taken from the video linked below.

Solmissus marshalli lives in the midwater zone of seas. It feeds by swimming slowly with its tentacles stretched out. When animals bump into the tentacles, stinging cells fire and hold on. Depending on the size of the prey, it can take a jellyfish up to two hours to move food from its tentacles to its stomach. The jellyfish feeds on gelatinous animal plankton, other jellies and copepods. It is a secondary consumer.

In this video you can see two different species of jellyfish, Solimissus marshalli and Mitrocoma cellularia. These invertebrates are part of the phylum Cnidaria which include hydroids, scyphozoan jellyfishes, sea anemones, sea pens and corals. They are constructed of 2 layers of cells-the outer covering and the inner covering of the digestive cavity. Between is a jellylike layer (mesoglea). Some cells are specialized for digesting or stinging. The jellyfish is the sexual ‘medusa stage’ of a hydroid. The hydroid medusa has a membrane (velum) that grows inward from margin of the bell. Most of the 60 or so local jellyfishes are medusaes of hydrozoans; surprisingly very attractive, but usually very small and they often go unnoticed. These specimens were videoed by Jean-Olivier Dalphond and Damien Guihen on a sunny day of June 2001. Identification was by Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss. Anita regularly samples the waters of Race Rocks as well as nearby Eemdyck passage, Beecher Bay , Pedder Bay and Sooke harbour where the upwelling water from the Strait of Juan de Fuca often brings numerous medusae.

Species recognized by World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS):

See this link for other hydroids:  http://www.racerocks.ca/tag/hydroid/ 

This file is provided as part of a collaborative effort by the students, faculty, staff and volunteers of Lester B. Pearson College Date:
2005
Debra Quek PC Yr 31

 

Mitrocoma cellularia : jellyfish – Race Rocks Taxonomy

mitrocoma

Mitrocoma cellularia

In this video you can see two different species of jellyfish, Solimissus marshalli and Mitrocoma cellularia. These invertebrates are part of the phylum Cnidaria which include hydroids, scyphozoan jellyfishes, sea anemones, sea pens and corals. They are constructed of 2 layers of cells-the outer covering and the inner covering of the digestive cavity. Between is a jellylike layer (mesoglea). Some cells are specialized for digesting or stinging. The jellyfish is the sexual ‘medusa stage’ of a hydroid. The hydroid medusa has a membrane (velum) that grows inward from the margin of the bell. Most of the 60 or so local jellyfishes are medusaes of hydrozoans; surprisingly very attractive, but usually very small and they often go unnoticed. These specimens were videoed by Jean-Olivier Dalphond and Damien Guihen on a sunny day of June 2001. Identification was by Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss. Anita regularly samples the waters of Race Rocks as well as nearby Eemdyck passage, Beecher Bay , Pedder Bay and Sooke harbour where the upwelling water from the Strait of Juan de Fuca often brings numerous hydroid medusae. 

From NCBI taxonomy

See this link for other hydroids:  http://www.racerocks.ca/tag/hydroid/ Link to the Race Rocks Taxonomy index

This file is provided as part of a collaborative effort by the students, faculty, staff and volunteers  of 
Date:
2005
Garry Fletcher

Abietinaria amphora: Photomicrography of Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss

The branching colony measures 1.0-1.5 cm in height, so microscopic pictures are necessary to show the details

Domain Eukarya
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Cnidaria
Class Hydrozoa
Order Leptothecata (=Leptomedusae)
Family Sertulariidae
Genus Abietinaria
Species amphora, Nutting 1904
Common Name:  ———–

This file is provided as part of a collaborative effort by Lester B. Pearson College and local scientists. Copyrighted 1999-All Images on this page are the property of: Dr. Anita Brinckmann-Voss. They can not be used or modified without her written permission. April 2002

see this link for other hydroids:  http://www.racerocks.ca/tag/hydroid/