Marine Mammals Hauled out on Race Rocks Jan 2014-Feb 2016

 

This graph represents the 6 marine mammal species which haul out on Great Race Rocks in the Race Rocks Ecological reserve.  providing the population numbers and the time of year  CLICK to enlarge. The data was obtained from the Posts on census done by the Ecoguardians at Race Rocks.mammalcraph

The graph below represents the Elephant seal population at Race Rocks Ecological reserve with data taken from the Ecoguardian logs for January 2014 to January 2016. Click to enlarge.

elephantseal2014-2015

ANIMAL CENSUS

July 9th Thursday: Animal census

The fog was still there pretty thick but around 11:30 it cleared up and we could go up the tower to do the census. We had a west wind and the forecast was a gale warning for the end of the afternoon.The wind at noon was from West at 24 knots and could go to 35 in the late afternoon. We saw a few Whale watchers boats around noon and we had no visitors. Water is getting colder under 12 degrees Celsius. Guy put a new VHF on the whaler.

The estimation of the population is:
Elephant seals: 3
Sea Lions: 180
Pigeon–guillemots: 80
Gulls: 450 (yesterday we could see a group of gulls with black winged maybe some west gulls)
Pelagic cormorants: 3
Geese: 11 (Today the smallest one of the family of 5 was not in the water swimming but looked lost alone in the island hanging around). They spend more and more time in the water.
Black oystercatchers :0

Bald eagle: 1 (they attack the colony almost every day once in the morning)

 

Population Growth of Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at Race Rocks, 1990-2014

The following is a draft copy of a graph I am working on to illustrate the growth of the elephant seal population at Race Rocks over the past few years. The information has been retrieved from logs of current and past Ecoguardians and photos and notes taken over the years.

To be continued:  G. Fletcher

Elephant  Seal census

Phalacrocorax pelagicus: Review of Research on Nesting and Populations

rmpelagic1We have seen a marked decline in nesting of one of the four species of seabirds which has nested traditionally at Race Rocks, Pelagic Cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus). By 2007, the nesting population had been reduced to one or two nests, and from 2008 to the last season (2009 ) there were no nests at all. This population crash has been common across the Gulf Islands., and the lower end of Vancouver Island and Strait of Juan de Fuca. According to the Canadian Wildlife Service, the population of this species is estimated to be at 9000 individuals, and the pelagicus subspecies is red-listed by BC – other subspecies are stable.

In this file, I have summarized the results of several papers on research on Cormorant populations in the southern Gulf Islands and Georgia Strait. Vermeer and Rankin, 1984, did their research when the populations were on the incline, however since the 1900s, this trend has not persisted as has been reflected in the paper by Chatwin et al. The summary of their paper and the possible reasons for decline are listed near the end of this review.

The British Columbia Coastal Waterbird Survey by Badzinski et al, 2005 indicated a possible upturn in the population trend in BC.

See images of Pelagic Cormorants on Ryan Murphy’s Flickr site

The Christmas bird count records from Race Rocks reflect some of the low population numbers at that time of year, but do show an increase in the last two years, so we hope this may signify a turn in the welfare of this species. It will be interesting to track whether or not this species returns to nesting.

Population Trends in Nesting Double-Crested and Pelagic Cormorants in Canada

  • Author(s): Kees Vermeer and Leo Rankin Source: The Murrelet, Vol. 65, No. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp. 1-9 Published by: Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Biology Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3534203 (partial listing only)
  • ABSTRACT- Breeding populations of Double-crested (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Pelagic Cormorants (P. pelagicus) were surveyed in the Strait of Georgia, British Colum-bia, in 1983. Double-crested Cormorant numbers have increased 2.4-fold and Pelagic Cormorant numbers 1.1-fold since 1975. Double-crested Cormorant populations are presently not only increasing in British Columbia but all across Canada and in the northeastern United States. These increases are thought to be the result of decreased disturbance and persecution by man.
  • The following table is presented in partial form only:
Double-crested and Pelagic Cormorant Inventory in the Strait of Georgia in 2000

  • http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wildlife/wsi/reports/4382_WSI_4382_RPT.PDF (see complete report)
    Authors:
    Trudy A. Chatwin, Monica H. Mather, Tanya Giesbrecht May 2001
    Abstract Since the early 1990’s Double-crested and Pelagic Cormorant have shown alarming declines in nesting populations in the Strait of Georgia. This study was initiated in 2000 to provide a complete count of nesting colonies in the Strait and compare population estimate from counts completed in various years since the mid 1950’s. A complete survey of all colonies was done in 1987. Before that, counts were done in many colonies, though not annually. We surveyed 34 Pelagic Cormorant and 17 Double-crested Cormorant historic and current colonies during the 2000 breeding season. Where possible we examined nest population trends at colonies with multiple years of data. Our analyses showed that overall counts of Pelagic Cormorants were down by half and Double-crested Cormorants had declined by two-thirds since 1987. Pelagic Cormorants showed a significant decline in total nests between 1959 and 2000; although during that period, an increase in the population at Mitlenatch Island was noted. At Double-crested Cormorant colonies, two significant increasing trends were noted. Since 1983 the population at Shoal Islands has slowly increased from zero to 104 nests in 2000. Likewise the population at Mitlenatch has also increased from zero to 70 nests. However these increases do not offset the very dramatic declines in overall population size. The most profound decreases were seen at Mandarte and Great Chain Islands where most of the Double-crested Cormorants were nesting in the late 1980’s. At Mandarte Island, 1100 nests were observed in 1983, while only to 215 were counted in 2000. We suggest that the causes of declines are possibly related to a combination of Bald Eagle disturbance, change in prey availability and human disturbance. Recommendations for management and conservation are discussed.
  • The following table is presented in partial form only:

The authors express their concern for the decline in recent years with the following summation:

  • “Based on nest counts, the nesting populations of Pelagic and Double-crested Cormorants in the Strait of Georgia have shown alarming declines in the last few years. Concern is especially warranted when one compares the complete counts that were made in 1987 and 2000. The number of nests observed has decreased by 54% for Pelagic and 70% for Double-crested Cormorants. “
The reasons for the decline were summarized in the paper as follows:

  • “The populations of both cormorant species have fluctuated considerably over the 40 years of surveys. This could be due to changes in prey availability in the Strait. Cormorants feed on Pacific Herring, Gunnells, Shiner Perch and Salmon. It has been suggested that herring schools have moved north in the Strait of Georgia (Jane Watson, Pers. Comm.), which could account for the increase in both species of cormorants at Mitlenatch. However, this does not account for the loss of the Hornby Island Colony as there is a major herring spawn in that area. As well, it is difficult to explain the increase in the Shoal Islands Double-crested Cormorant colony, by shifts in herring populations.
    Other concerns for nesting cormorants are predation by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and disturbance from boat traffic. Eagle populations have increased on the east side of Vancouver Island (Karen Morrison, Pers. Comm.). Giesbrecht (2001) showed that Eagles were the main source of disturbance to nesting Double-crested Cormorant ’s in the Strait. She observed eagles flushing birds from their nests as well as direct predation on adults/juveniles. Recreational boating and kayaking have also increased in the Strait of Georgia. Although Giesbrecht (2001) did not observe flushing by boaters in her study, anecdotal information (Moul 2001) indicates that human disturbance either by landing at a colony or flushing birds by approaching too closely exposes chicks and eggs to predation by Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) and Bald Eagles. “
British Columbia Coastal Waterbird Survey An Evaluation of Survey Power and Species Trends after Five Years of Monitoring March 2005http://www.bsc-eoc.org/download/BCCWS%205-YR%20Report.pdf

Authors: Shannon S. Badzinski 1, Richard J. Cannings 2, Tasha Smith 2, & Jason Komaromi 3

  • Data for two of three species of cormorants show increasing trends (Double-crested
    Cormorant, Pelagic Cormorant). Both these species have shown significant declines in numbers
    at breeding colonies on the British Columbia coast between 1980 and 2000, so the results from
    this survey may indicate a stabilizing trend but further monitoring is clearly needed. Brandt’s
    Cormorants, which occur primarily as a non breeding species, show no clear population trend
    over the past 5 years.
Also from the website of the Canadain WildlifeService, Information is presented on the decline of seabirds along the Pacific Coast of Canada. So we will continue to update our population observations of this species .Garry Fletcher, February, 2010

Directory of OceanQuest Assignment Resources:

Collage for OceanQuest

Overview: Are you prepared to take on the challenge of OceanQuest? You are expected to be an active participant in helping to build a valuable resource database for a unique sensitive environment.

The basic starting resources you will use come from www.racerocks.ca but our vision for the future is that you may actively develop a set of internet resources for your own unique ecological area.

Link to The OceanQuest GIS With Curriculum Guide
NOTE: The link to the GIS which ran on an outside server arranged by the Open School has been discontinued.. The other curruculum materials are still valid however on this site.
Topic 1 :
BIODIVERSITY

Some of the folllowing files from www. racerocks.ca were used in the building of the OCEANQUEST website.
Lesson:Intertidal Race Rocks 1. Structure and Function of Ecosystems :
How can we model ecosystems in order to understand how they work ?
Student Activities: Objectives:
Procedure :
1. Introduction
2. Horizontal distribution

  • Objectives:
    Procedure:

    • 1. Use the remote camera.
    • 2. Use the dichotomous key for identification.
    • 3. Determine the sector from aerial view of horizontal distribution.
    • 4. Field techniques to quantify distribution.
    • 5. Describe the Role of organisms in determining horizontal distribution.
    • 6. Design your own horizontal structure analysis.
    • 7. How do Anthropogenic Impacts affect Biodiversity.
3. Vertical Distribution

  • Objectives:
    Procedure:

    • 1. Use the remote camera.
    • 2. Use the Dichotomous key for identification.
    • 3. Vertical Stratification of Tide Pools
    • 4. Subtidal vertical stratification with seaweed canopy.
    • 5. Vertical Stratification in the water column.
    • 6. Vertical Stratification in Soil
    • 7. Design your own vertical structure analysis.
4. Biotic Components
List of birds and mammals most frequently observed from the remote camera 5.
5. Rare and Endangered Species
6. Coastal Classification System

7. Abiotic Components (Topic 2 below)
8. Ecosystem Function

9. Biogeochemical cycles

10. Extension..Other ecosystems– structure and function.
Lesson:
2. Why not Adopt an Ecosystem?
pond Use the internet as a means to get groups to collaborate to provide an educational resource while ensuring the stewardship of their own local ecological resources.
Objectives:
Procedure:
1. Identify the area
2. Establish goals and time lines
3. Establish a baseline inventory
4. Class project to provide a taxonomy
5. Use technology to document the area
6. Monitor for Structure and Function: (See topic 1.)
7. Submit site for inclusion in GIS
8. Obtain tiff-referenced aerial photography
9. Assemble a web-site to carry the information.
10. Create a list of the Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital of the area.

11.Set up a weather monitoring Station.

TOPIC 2: ABIOTIC FACTORS
Lessons:Link to Abiotic Factors Assignment 1. Selected Abiotic Factors (such as Barometric Pressure) :

The effects of physical factors on the life of an ecosystem is often taken for granted. Here we give you the chance to investigate some of the unique ways that organisms have evolved in order to adapt to the physical conditions of their environments.

Objectives:
Procedure:
1.Introduction
2. Wind Speed and Direction
3. Barometric Pressure
4. Lightning
5. Change through time: Salinity and Temperature.

Lessons: bell curve 2. Limiting Factors and the Ecological Niche
Objectives:
Procedure:
1. Introduction
2. GIS activity
3. and 4and 5. Contrast limiting factors in two closely related species.
6. Natural Selection
7. The Ecological Niche as determined by limiting factors
8. Adaptation: A classic study of limiting factors: The Bumpus sparrows.
9. Extension: Central Tendency and Variability.
Topic 3 : ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR
Lessons
Population
1. Population Monitoring:
An activity which allows you to contribute to a scientific database for the census of animals
Objectives:
Procedure:
1. Census of the populations, and the use of the dichotomous key.
2. Race Rocks population numbers and sector designations.
3. Weather correlation to population levels.
2. The Ethology Assignment:
Lessons:Ethology An activity that may allow you to look at the behaviours of animals in a new way
Objectives:
Procedure
1. Preliminary Observation.
2. Collecting Data.. The ethogram and the time budget.
3. Using the dichotomous key for identification.
4. Compiling the Ethogram
5. Preparing the Time Budget
6. Doing a report and submitting results to the GIS
7. Extension material

Animal Populations and Behaviors

BACKGROUND: In the populations of animals which we encounter at Race Rocks, we see a good representation of the biodiversity of the area. For years we have wanted to get a better idea of the levels of the bird and mammal populations throughout the year and also from one year to another. We have had scientists record the Christmas Bird Count in recent years, but we also need to have an idea of the population levels throughout the year. Scientists can determine the health of an ecosystem by knowing the trends of the populations through time. You have an opportunity here to contribute to the body of knowledge about the changes in populations through time.
Objectives: After doing this assignment, students will be able to:

a) Gather census data on populations of animals at Race Rocks using the remote cameras.

b) Use a simple dichotomous key for the identification of species.

c) Analyze the seasonal trends in populations of birds and mammals from Race Rocks

d) Describe the correlations between population trends on a particular day, and climatic conditions.

(If you are on sight at RR) you can document populations of species closeup such as in the surge channel or tidepool areas. Also physical factors such as ph, Salimnity and temperature, along with stratification can be recorded. These change through the seasonsd. If there is no reference file set up for one of the areas , feel free to start one and contribute it here. )

Procedure:

1. Census of Population: We will be estimating the numbers of a particular species in the areas visible from the remote control camera 1 or camera 5 of racerocks.com. Choose a bird or mammal species while viewing the area through camera .Verify the identification of a species observed by using the Dichotomous key for birds and mammals of Race Rocks.

2. Estimate the numbers of individuals of this species in the various sectors of the island visible from camera 5 and or camera 1. Record these in your data book.The ecosystems of Race Rocks are identified below in Table 1.

( You do not need to cover all sectors, however, if you choose a few and monitor them several times, you will get some figures that can be used to establish correlations with time of year, time of day, weather conditions or whatever you define as a possible physical factor that determines population distribution.)

3.Record the location of the population on the Sector maps of Race Rocks. Click on the appropriate image below for the sector designation. Where possible, capture a photo and include it with your data report..

4. Record the weather conditions from the weather page, and indicate weather you think that they have any effect on the population levels and locations.

Note: In the table below other sectors not visible from the cameras such as the tidepools have been numbered. If you are doing research on the island you can link to thespecific tidepool file with the number referred to in the list below.
Great Race Sectors from Cam 1 Great Race Sectors Race Rocks Reserve Sectors
Great Race Sector Image Map for Camera 1 views
Click on the pink-outlined polygons to identify the extra views from camera 1 not visible from cam 5.
Great Race Sector Image Map for Camera 5 viewsClick on the red-outlined polygons to identify the views from camera 5. Race Rocks and Race Passage Sector Image MapClick on the red-outlined polygons to identify the outer islands views from camera 5
TABLE 1: Race Rocks Sector Designations:
1.0.1.1.8 Race Rocks
1.0.1.1.8.1 Shore and Rock Rise North East of Jetty
1.0.1.1.8.1.1 East Rock rise
1.0.1.1.8.1.1.1 East of House and Bay

1.0.1.1.8.1.2 East shore
1.0.1.1.8.1.3 Water to East
1.0.1.1.8.1.3.1 within 1 km
1.0.1.1.8.1.4 underwater
1.0.1.1.8.28.6 Winch House and grass plain
1.0.1.1.8.28.7 North lawn to dock
1.0.1.1.8.3 Shore North of Jetty
1.0.1.1.8.3.1 Tidepool#14
1.0.1.1.8.3.2 Tidepool#15
1.0.1.1.8.3.3 Tidepool#16
1.0.1.1.8.3.4 Tidepool #17
1.0.1.1.8.3.5 Tidepool#18
1.0.1.1.8.3.6 Tidepool#19
1.0.1.1.8.3.7 Tidepool #20
1.0.1.1.8.3.8 Crevasse
1.0.1.1.8.3.8 underwater
1.0.1.1.8.4 Jetty and Jetty Bays
1.0.1.1.8.4.1 underwater
1.0.1.1.8.5 North Perch by cam 5
1.0.1.1.8.6 West Perch and cliff face
1.0.1.1.8.6.1 underwater

1.0.1.1.8.7 Rain Pools and close foreground -cam5
1.0.1.1.8.8 Heli pad and near camera 5
1.0.1.1.8.9 West shore and tide pool area
1.0.1.1.8.9.0
1.0.1.1.8.9 .1 Tidepool#1
1.0.1.1.8.9 .2 Tidepool#2
1.0.1.1.8.9 .3 Tidepool#3
1.0.1.1.8.9 .4 Tidepool#4
1.0.1.1.8.9 .5 Tidepool#5
1.0.1.1.8.9 .6 Tidepool#6
1.0.1.1.8.9 .7 Tidepool#7
1.0.1.1.8.9 .8 Tidepool#8
1.0.1.1.8.9 .9 Tidepool#9
1.0.1.1.8.9 .10 Tidepool#10
1.0.1.1.8.9 .11 Tidepool#11
1.0.1.1.8.9 .12 Tidepool #12
1.0.1.1.8.9 .13 Tidepool#13 artificial tp
1.0.1.1.8.9 .14 underwater

1.0.1.1.8.10 SW corner by surge channel rock
1.0.1.1.8.10.1 Surge Channel
1.0.1.1.8.10.2 South East Rise
1.0.1.1.8.11 South shore to Engine Room
1.0.1.1.8.11.1 Outfall surge channel
1.0.1.1.8.11.2 Shoreline
1.0.1.1.8.11.3 Underwater
1.0.1.1.8.12 Science House and lawn areas
1.0.1.1.8.13 Tower and Base area
1.0.1.1.8.14 Shore South and East of tower
1.0.1.1.8.15 South Rock Islands
1.0.1.1.8.15.1 Beyond South Rocks to Strait
1.0.1.1.8.15.1 underwater
1.0.1.1.8.15.2 underwater Rosedale reef
1.0.1.1.8.16 South-east rock beach bay
1.0.1.1.8.17 North side of the Keeper’s House
1.0.1.1.8.18 Water channel off docks
1.0.1.1.8.18.1 underwater
1.0.1.1.8.19 Middle Island
1.0.1.1.8.19.1 East islet of middles
1.0.1.1.8.19.2 Main middle
1.0.1.1.8.19.2.2.1 underwater
1.0.1.1.8.19.3 Turbine Channel
1.0.1.1.8.19.3 underwater
1.0.1.1.8.20 North Rock
1.0.1.1.8.20.1 underwater
1.0.1.1.8.21 North to Pedder Bay and Victoria

1.0.1.1.8.22 Race passage to Bentinck Island
1.0.1.1.8.23West ocean view area
1.0.1.1.8.24 West Race Rocks
1.0.1.1.8.24.1 underwater
1.0.1.1.8.25 Strait of Juan de Fuca West and South
1.0.1.1.8.25.1Within 1 km
1.0.1.1.8.25.2 Beyond 1 km

Lesson 2: Animal Behavior.Go to this file for the Animal Behavior lab.
Link to the Reference File for the Census Lab:

Directory of OceanQuest Assignment Resources:

Collage for OceanQuestOverview: Are you prepared to take on the challenge of OceanQuest? You are expected to be an active participant in helping to build a valuable resource database for a unique sensitive environment.

The basic starting resources you will use come from www. racerocks.ca but our vision for the future is that you may actively develop a set of internet resources for your own unique ecological area.

Link to The OceanQuest GIS With Curriculum Guide
NOTE: The link to the GIS which ran on an outside server arranged by the Open School has been discontinued.. The other curruculum materials are still valid however on this site.

Topic 1 :
BIODIVERSITY

Some of the folllowing files from www. racerocks.ca were used in the building of the OCEANQUEST website.
Lesson:Intertidal Race Rocks 1. Structure and Function of Ecosystems :
How can we model ecosystems in order to understand how they work ?
Student Activities: Objectives:
Procedure :
1. Introduction
2. Horizontal distribution

  • Objectives:
    Procedure:

    • 1. Use the remote camera.
    • 2. Use the dichotomous key for identification.
    • 3. Determine the sector from aerial view of horizontal distribution.
    • 4. Field techniques to quantify distribution.
    • 5. Describe the Role of organisms in determining horizontal distribution.
    • 6. Design your own horizontal structure analysis.
    • 7. How do Anthropogenic Impacts affect Biodiversity.
      • Objectives:
        Procedure:
3. Vertical Distribution

  • Objectives:
    Procedure:

    • 1. Use the remote camera.
    • 2. Use the Dichotomous key for identification.
    • 3. Vertical Stratification of Tide Pools
    • 4. Subtidal vertical stratification with seaweed canopy.
    • 5. Vertical Stratification in the water column.
    • 6. Vertical Stratification in Soil
    • 7. Design your own vertical structure analysis.
4. Biotic Components
List of birds and mammals most frequently observed from the remote camera 5.
5. Rare and Endangered Species
6. Coastal Classification System

  • Objectives
  • Procedure:
7. Abiotic Components (Topic 2 below)
8. Ecosystem Function

  • Objectives:
  • Procedure:
9. Biogeochemical cycles

  • Objectives:
  • Procedure:
10. Extension..Other ecosystems– structure and function.

 

Lesson:
2. Why not Adopt an Ecosystem?
pond Use the internet as a means to get groups to collaborate to provide an educational resource while ensuring the stewardship of their own local ecological resources.
Objectives:
Procedure:
1. Identify the area
2. Establish goals and time lines
3. Establish a baseline inventory
4. Class project to provide a taxonomy
5. Use technology to document the area
6. Monitor for Structure and Function: (See topic 1.)
7. Submit site for inclusion in GIS
8. Obtain tiff-referenced aerial photography
9. Assemble a web-site to carry the information.
10. Create a list of the Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital of the area.

  • Objectives:
  • Procedure

11. Set up a weather monitoring Station

 

TOPIC 2: ABIOTIC FACTORS
Lessons:Link to Abiotic Factors Assignment 1. Selected Abiotic Factors (such as Barometric Pressure) :

The effects of physical factors on the life of an ecosystem is often taken for granted. Here we give you the chance to investigate some of the unique ways that organisms have evolved in order to adapt to the physical conditions of their environments.

Objectives:
Procedure:
1.Introduction
2. Wind Speed and Direction
3. Barometric Pressure
4. Lightning
5. Change through time: Salinity and Temperature.

  • Objectives:
  • Procedure:
Lessons: bell curve 2. Limiting Factors and the Ecological Niche
Objectives:
Procedure:
1. Introduction
2. GIS activity
3. and 4and 5. Contrast limiting factors in two closely related species.
6. Natural Selection
7. The Ecological Niche as determined by limiting factors
8. Adaptation: A classic study of limiting factors: The Bumpus sparrows.
9. Extension: Central Tendency and Variability.
Topic 3 : ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR
Lessons
Population
1. Population Monitoring:
An activity which allows you to contribute to a scientific database for the census of animals
Objectives:
Procedure:
1. Census of the populations, and the use of the dichotomous key.
2. Race Rocks population numbers and sector designations.
3. Weather correlation to population levels.

 

2. The Ethology Assignment:
Lessons:Ethology An activity that may allow you to look at the behaviours of animals in a new way
Objectives:
Procedure
1. Preliminary Observation.
2. Collecting Data.. The ethogram and the time budget.
3. Using the dichotomous key for identification.
4. Compiling the Ethogram
5. Preparing the Time Budget
6. Doing a report and submitting results to the GIS
7. Extension material

Race Rocks Belt Transect Lab

BELT TRANSECT PROCEDURE

About 20 metres east from the dock on the north side of Great Race Rocks, we plotted our transect from Peg 15, a bearing of 270 degrees. Starting at peg 15 and going parallel to the environmental gradient of slope to the ocean, we laid a tape measure and at every half-meter we made a 50cm-by-50cm quadrant and counted the species in the plot.

ANALYSIS: We counted the algae by percent cover and the invertebrates by number. Some species overlapped, such as Anthopleura and Halosaccion. This coexistence was possible because the two species were not vying for the same food source. Species such as thatched barnacles and acorn barnacles did not live in the same quadrants, however. This may be because they are competing for the same substrate and nutrients and each prevents the other from invading into their space. As well, the thatched barnacles stopped growing at quadrant 15 but that is just where its competition, acorn barnacles began to grow. Perhaps one species was better suited to surviving further up the shore.

That was the case for many of the species along the transect. Invertebrates like chiton, limpets and snails needed to be covered by the tide for most of its cycle. If these species tried to grow where they were exposed for a longer period of time, they would dry out and die. Other species like lichen need to be out of the water and as expected, were only found at high elevations on the transect.

The topography also affected the species diversity. The California Mussel, for example, was found only in quadrants that had crevices and rough substrate on which to grow.    In general, the abiotic factor that had the greatest affect on species diversity on the transect was the elevation and amount of tide cover the area got during a tide cycle. Below are kite diagrams of each species we found on the transect.

Carmen and Jana Environmental Systems class April 2003  This x-axis represents percentage cover for the macroalgaes. Note it may be a different scale in the graphs. The y-axis represents the .5meter quadrat location from the peg #15

Carmen and Jana Environmental Systems class April 2003

LINK to photographic transect strip of this area.

This x-axis represents percentage cover for the macroalgaes. Note it may be a different scale in the graphs. The y-axis represents the .5meter quadrat location from the peg #15.

The “series” 1 and 2 just represent half of the value for each quadrat for the species, a way to get EXCEL to plot a symmetrical “kite” shape

Hedophylum sp. ( Brown wrinkled algae)
Analepus sp. ( rare algae)

Hedophylum sp. ( Brown wrinkled algae)

Praseola sp. (green mat algae)
Xanthorea sp. (yellow Lichen)
Porphyra.sp
Hildenbrandia sp. ( red thin crust algae)
Alaria marginata ( brown Algae)
Coralina sp. ( pink coraline algae)
Fucus sp.

LINK to photographic transect strip of this area. The “series” 1 and 2 just represent half of the value for each quadrat for the species, a way to get EXCEL to plot a symmetrical “kite” shape

Gigartina sp. (red algae)
Cryptosiphonia sp. (like wet dog hair)
Halosaccion sp.. (salt sac algae)
Golden Diatom

Ulva lactuca Sea lettuce

Californianus sp.California mussel

Searlesia dira ( Spindle Whelk

Amphysia sp. Snail

Neomolgis sp. Red Spider Mite

 

Purple Nucella Snail

INVERTEBRATES
individuals are tabulated.

Limpet
Acorn Barnacles
Thatched Barnacles
Littorina Periwinkle snail
Anthopleura elegantisima ( green intertidal anemone)

Katharina sp. (leather chiton)

Return to the Ecological Monitoring Contents page.